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Nature & Environment
[A Biannual Peer Reviewd International Journal of Natural Sciences]


 Nat. Environ.                                              Vol. 19[2]                                                   July. 2014.



1.        Physiology of African nightshades (Solanum scabrum Mill. and Solanum villosum Mill.) as Influenced by Soil Water Deficit

O.M. Jomo, G.W. Netondo, H.O. Okello, S.S Fedha and D.M. Musyim                        137-146

Abstract: Limitations in soil water impair physiological processes hence affecting bioproductivity which in turn lowers agricultural production thereby contributing to food insecurity. This research was designed to investigate the effects of soil water deficit on physiology of two African nightshades, (S. scabrum Mill. and S. villosum Mill) which are widely consumed in Kenya due to their high nutritional value. The experiment was conducted at Maseno University, Botanic Garden under glasshouse conditions. The experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design (CRD factorial, consisting of four treatments and three replications. The treatments were: T1-watering daily (control), T2-watering after every three days (the 3rd and 6th day), T3-watering the 9th day and T4-watering the 12th day. Stomatal conductance and leaf temperature were determined by use of a steady-state porometer. Chlorophyll fluorescence was determined by use of a portable fluorescence monitoring system. Soil moisture content was determined gravimetrically. Data collected was analyzed using MSTAT-C statistical computer package. Results showed that the two species of African nightshades were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by water deficit. Water deficit caused a decrease in stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence while leaf temperature increased with increasing soil water deficit except during the flowering stage.

Key Words:  African nightshades, physiology, soil water deficit, Maseno University

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2.        A Study of Environmental and Health Effects of Insect Repellents

Chinmaya Agarwal and Avdesh Bhardawaj                                                          147-150

Abstract: With the spurt of population explosion and variable standards of modern living, a lot of problems have emancipated like insects invading human territories. The most common solution provided for getting rid of insects is chemical insect repellents. Normally people perceive nothing harmful about such insect repellents for their health and environment. It is normal practice to switch on (or apply on our body) mosquito repellents unaware of its harmful effects on human health if we are bitten by an insect or usually in our bedrooms whole night. They contain several chemicals which individually and together can impose such diseases on humans that may prove incurable. Not much research has been done on this topic but works till date have indicated that these products are dangerous for children (especially infants) and pregnant women. This paper gives an insight into the harmful effects that these chemical repellents pose and possible solutions for protection from these.

Key Words: Insect repellent, human health, environment, mosquito coil

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3.        Purity Testing of the Raw and Processed Plant Origin Drugs for Phytoformulation

Ishrat Alim, Ayesha Fatima Rizvi, Saba Khan and Mohammad Rafi             151-157

Abstract: Madhya Pradesh is a reservoir of biodiversity as it has rich and very diverse forest resources. Medicinal plant materials which are used as home remedies and offcourse essential element supplement represent a substantial proportion of the global dru market. Henceforth, it is necessary to establish a data base regarding the proximate analysis and elements as supplementary constituents. The methods related to sample treatment and preparation for pre-treatment solubilisation of the samples are essential for trace and heavy metal analysis in the herbal drugs which are being formulated by using such plants parts. In this way, we may established the protocol and standard operating procedure internationally on the basis of recognized guide lines which are applied on the quality assurance of the particular drugs. Level of essential and toxic metals in the selected plants is a matter of great concern all over the world. Here we report that whether the selected plant species viz., Chlorophytum borivillianum (Safed Musli), Emblica officinalis (Awla), and Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) used as raw and processed phytoformulation are safe or not in regard to physico-chemical characteristics and the metal contaminants having permissible range of the trace essential elements. Present study has been under taken to establish the methods which are technically viable and feasible.

Key Words: Food and Agri-produce, Quality assurance, Physico-chemical characteristics, Nutritional constituents, Metal contaminants.

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4.        Studies on Effect of Long Term Storage of Jatropha Oil, Blends of Jatropha Oil with Diesel and Bio-diesel on Quality

R.N. Singh, Shaishav Sharma and D.K. Vyas                                                            158-162

Abstract: Storage of oil is an important factor that impacts the shelf life and quality of oil as well as its impact on the storage parts. A study was designed and carried out by making different blends of Jatropha oil and diesel in the proportion of 10:90, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, 90:10, and 100:0 with 100% diesel as control. Freshly prepared bio-diesel from Jatropha oil was also kept for storage along with Jatropha oil- diesel blends. Blends and controls were stored for a period of one year.  Storage studies indicated that while Jatropha oil could be stored for about 3 months and bio-diesel for about 12 months without much change in the viscosity and free fatty acid. Jatropha oil could safely be stored for one year when up to 20% oil was blended with diesel.  Blending with higher than 20% of Jatropha oil, the viscosity and free fatty acid increased significantly. There was no significant change in the dimensions of the metallic components coming in contact with blends of Jatropha oil with diesel. However, the non-metallic components such as gasket and rubber washer were affected. No significant changes were observed in case of PVC pipe dipped in Jatropha oil-diesel blend up to 20%.

Key Words: Blended Jatropha oil, Storage, Viscosity, Free fatty acids

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5.        Efficacy of Sustainable Technologies for Fluoride Removal from Groundwater Resource: A General View

K.R. Jeya, A. Sakthidesai, S. Rajakumar and P.M. Ayyasamy                                            163-172

Abstract: Fluoride is a non-biodegradable contaminant that accumulates in the entire environmental components like aquatics, plants and human beings. High fluoride concentrations are especially critical in developing countries, because of lack of suitable infrastructure for treatment. Fluoride has a significant mitigating effect against dental caries if the concentration is approximately 1mg/l. However, continuing consumption of higher concentrations can cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. Further, efficiency of novel method is considered necessary to adopt for fluoride removal from wastes, aqueous media and plant sources by membrane and adsorption techniques. The present evaluation emphasized on efficiency of different techniques for the removal of fluoride from water and plants. The result of the exploratory study on different parameters resembling pH, agitation time, fluoride concentration, temperature and particle size are operate for fluoride removal capacity through membrane, adsorption and plant materials.

Key Words: Fluoride contamination, Fluorosis, Defluoridation, adsorption, fluoride removal

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6.        Light-Trap Catch of Moth Species of the Becse-Type Light Trap in Connection With the Height of the Tropopause

János Puskás, László Nowinszky and Zoltán Mészáros                                                          173-178

Abstract: In present study we examined the connection between height of tropopause and the light-trap catch moth species. The data of 8 Microlepidoptera and 26 Macrolepidoptera species were caught from the material of a Becse-type light-trap between1969 and 1973 Groups were made for data of the height of tropopause. The relative catch values of the examined species were categorised according to the characteristics of tropopause on each day, after it these values were summarised, averaged and depicted. We defined the parameters of the regression equations. Most species are collected in connection with the increasing the height of the tropopause, but decrease was observed only in case of three species. Often can be experienced the increase of the catch after the decrease of it if the values of the tropopause height is high. The different form of behaviour, however, is not linked to the taxonomic position.

Key Words: Becse-type Light trap, Tropopause

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7.        Practices of Shifting Cultivation and its Implications in Mizoram, North-East India: A Review of Existing Research

Vishwambhar Prasad Sati and P. Rinawma                                                            179-187

Abstract: This paper reviews the practices of shifting cultivation and its implications in Mizoram, North-East India. Mizoram has been remaining isolated from the main stream of development for the centuries. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. About 80% population is engaged in its practices. Shifting cultivation is dominant in the highlands. The lowlands and valleys are characterized by the permanent wet rice cultivation. The data about the area under shifting cultivation is not unanimous. It varies from 18% of the total geographical area to 28%, according to the various studies carried out by the scholars.  Out of the total net sown area, shifting cultivation covers about 38.64%. Rice is the main crop. However, its production meets only 25% of the total rice consumption. Shifting cultivation has doe impacts on the society and the environment. It is the main socio-economic activity of the highlanders. Meanwhile, it has negative impact on the forest and landscape. During the recent past, the fallow period of shifting cultivation has been reduced to 2-3 years. Therefore, the production and per ha yields of crops has largely been decreased. Further, the shifting cultivation areas have also been reduced to 58.1% from 1997-98 to 2010-11. As a result, 1.4% forestland increases in Mizoram, between 1991 and 2011. This study relies mostly upon the collection of secondary data and review of existing research. Field observation of some shifting cultivation areas of Aizawl and Mamit districts was carried out that has enhanced the interpretation of data.

Key Words: Shifting cultivation, forest, implication, livelihood, Mizoram

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8.        Study on Waders and Wetland Bird Diversity, and their Habitat Selection of Some the Fresh Water Resources around Yavatmal City, Maharashtra, India

Praveen Joshi                                                                                                                       188-194

Abstract: The study of Waders and wetland species diversity and richness of some fresh water resources was carried out in the period of Oct. 2013 to Mar 2014. Total number of 57 bird species in 3 orders and 13 families was recorded during the survey. It was observed that there was a significant relationship between habitat and bird species diversity. The results of this study showed that bird diversity was normally distributed in all the sites like 43 -Borgaon dam, 40 - Nilona dam, 48 - Jamwadi dam, 26 - Arjuna dam, 22 -Echori Lake and 36 - Singhandov dam. Out of 57 waders 16 species were noticed on all the water bodies but 10 waders were observed on single dam because of their highly-specific habitat requirements. Waders are become increasingly intolerant of even slight ecosystem disturbance which includes water quality index, soil quality index, aquatic weeds diversity, food availability, surrounding area and special features .It is really gives satisfaction that all the ecological parameters are within their permissible limits and all the fresh water resources are the  best nesting, feeding, and breeding ground as per species required. The majority of wetland birds observed during this study were wide spread resident, comprising 29 % of the total species, followed by widespread winter visitor 12%, very local resident 1%,  local resident-winter visitors 6%, widespread Resident –winter visitors 7 % and  seasonal winter visitors vegetation 2% . Wetland birds have been found to be good indicators of the wetland environment and it must be managed sustainably. They could serve as indicators revealing the state of the wetland, as dispersal agents in transferring nutrients and spores from one wetland to another during migration and local movements, Immediate action should be taken by authority for improving the availability of fresh water bodies and control on anthropogenic activities which automatically helps to increase the waders and wetlands species in this area.    

Key Words: Waders, Wetland, Diversity, Habitat selection, Fresh water resource

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9.     Medical Waste Disposal: Incineration and Non Incineration Technology their Effects and prospects

Ranjana Verma                                                                                                                    195-198

Abstract: Safe disposal of medical waste is one of the major environmental issues. Medical waste consists of infectious and other general waste. Incineration technology is most common and routine practice in disposal of medical waste it reduce huge amount of waste in to small volume and finally converted into ash. Medical waste incinerator generate air and soil pollution and are major source of dioxins and furans which pose burden over environmental and human health. In present study we discuss alternative or non incineration waste disposal techniques; that is environmental friendly, economically cheap and useful. Although no one technology offers a panacea to the problem of medical waste disposal but other alternative waste disposal technique can control pollution through incineration unit at some extent. 

Key Words: Medical waste disposal, incineration technology, environmental threats, solution

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10.   Inhibition of Fumonisins (FB1 & FB2) Production by Organic Acids and Food Preservatives

Shradha Dixit, Surendra Singh and Shikha Dixit                                                  199-201

Abstract: Effect of organic acids and food preservatives from fumonisin production by toxigenic strains of Fusarium mould (S2.PO.16,S1.PR.25) revealed that 0.2% and 0.3% concentrations of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate completely checked fumonisin B1 (FB1) production. Further, benzoic acid and sod.benzoate totally checked FB2 production at ever 0.1% concentration. This study showed that benzoic acid and sodium benzoate were found to be most effective inhibitors of fumonisin elaboration and can be used for preventing fumonisin contamination in sorghum grains.

Key Words: Fumonisins, sorghum, Fusarium moniliforme, mycotoxin, organic acids, food preservatives.

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11.   A Study of Environmental and Health Benefits of Mud and Clay

Siddhant Goel and Avdesh Bhardawaj                                                                      202-206

Abstract: Out of the five constituent elements of this universe mud (soil) has a pivotal role to play in our well-being. The dark color of mud helps in absorbing different colors and conveying them to the body, giving it therapeutic properties. Mud is an important element of nature in our environment. It contains important minerals which have positive effects on human health. Mud can absorb toxins from human body therefore is very useful in preventing many diseases. It is also known for its healing properties. Mycobacterium vaccae is a natural soil bacterium which people likely ingest or breath in when they spend time in nature. Apart from the natural soil bacterium other benefits of muds include mud baths, mud packs etc. one may think that lolling in dirt can't offer any real benefits, but mud baths are a relaxing way to unwind- and they're good for us, too. For thousands of years, mud baths have been touted as a cure-all for a number of health ailments. Mud baths do have anti-inflammatory properties that make them beneficial. It also helps in cooling and relaxing body as it can hold moisture for a long time. They also contain many minerals that can soothe itchy, irritated skin. Mud packs other hand involves frequent application of packs of mud. It helps in improving skin complexion and acts on skin spots and patches to reduce them. Apart from mud bath and clay treatments it is a proven fact that researchers have discovered that children who play more in our natural environment and are involved in mud play activities tend to be less vulnerable to diseases and infections as compared to those who don’t. This paper examines the benefits of natural mud, clay and soil in our environment on our health and their importance in our daily life for our well-being.

Key Words: Mud, sustainable, soil erosion, health benefits, mud bath, clay spa

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12.   A GIS Approach on Ground Water and Surface Water Investigation of in and around Wellingdon Lake, Tittakudi, Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu

V. Vijayakumar, C. Suganya, S. Suganya, M. Sivasri and S.Vasudevan          207-212

Abstract: Irrigated agriculture is dependent on a sufficient water supply of utilizable quality. In the past water quality apprehensions had often been neglected because good quality water supplies had been plentiful and readily available. Wellingdon Lake is situated in Tittakudi taluk of Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu. It is located 50 km east of Neyveli and south of Vellar River. The length of the lake is 1.5 km and width is 1 km. The lake is located in between the Cuddalore and Perambalur district. We have to collect 10 surface water samples from Wellingdon Lake and 5 ground water samples from adjoining area. We have to analyze the basic physico chemical Parameters of the both water samples. The analyzed water samples to find out different methods and also to be used in ARC GIS by spatially represented the chemical characters of the water samples.

Key Word: Wellingdon Lake, Surface water and Ground water, Chemical character, ARC GIS.

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13.   Qualitative study of epilithic algae diversity spectrum in Lidder stream of Lidder Valley (Kashmir Himalayas)

Sumira Rasool, Ashwani Wanganeo and Ashok K. Pandit                               213-218

Abstract: Present study was carried out on Lidder stream in Lidder valley of Kashmir Himalayas dealing with a typical taxonomic composition of epilithic algae in stream. Epilithic algal community was represented by 144 taxa belonging to four classes namely, Bacillariophyceae with104 species (72%), Chlorophyceae with 19 species (13%), Cyanophyceae with 12 species (8%), Euglenophyceae with 4 species (3%) and Phylum Protozoa with 3 species (2%) while classes Chrysophyceae and Dinophyceae of algae contributed 1 species (1%) each. Bacillariophyceae was represented by some dominant forms like Navicula (16 species), Nitzschia (11 species), Cymbella (9 species) and Gomphonema (7species). Among blue green algae (Cyanophyceae), genus Spirulina recorded 3 species and Merismopedia registered 2 species. While in Chlorophyceae, the highest number of species was documented by genus Cosmarium (3 species), moreover Closterium, Euastrum and Ulothrix registered 2 species each. Bacillariophyceae was the predominant class at all the sites with the highest contribution of 104 species  at sites S1c, S2d, S2g and S4 (first year) and S1a, S1b, S2d, S2e, S2f, S2g, and S4 (second year) while the lowest of 98 species were recorded at site S3 during the entire study, rest of the groups were moderately to least represented.  

Key Words: - Taxonomic, Epilithic algae, Lidder valley, Kashmir, Himalayas

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14.   Method for Improving Thermal Performances of Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems Using Energy and Exergy Analysis for Reducing Global Warming and Ozone Depletioning Using Ecofriendly Refrigerants

R.S.  Mishra                                                                                                                           219-231

Abstract: In this paper the method for improving thermal performance of vapour compression refrigeration system using multiple evaporators and compressors with individual or multiple expansion valves have been considered by using first law and second law analysis. Numerical models have been developed for parallel and series expansion valves in the VCR. The comparison of above systems have been done in terms of first law efficiency, second law efficiency and exergy destruction ratio by using R410a, R290, R600, R600a, R1234yf, R502, R404a, R1234ze, R134a and R152a. it was observed that for the same degree of subcooling, fixed evaporators and condenser temperatures multiple evaporators and compressors with multiple expansion valves system is the best system with comparisons of system with individual expansion valves. The comparison was also done using eight ecofriendly refrigerants and it was found that R600, R600a, R290 and R152A show better performances than other refrigerants for both systems but due to inflammable property of R600 and R600a, R152a is preferred for both systems.

Key Words: Energy and exergy analysis, thermal performance, global warming

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15.   Analysis of Protein Alteration in Liver of Channa punctatus after Intoxication of Cypermathrin

Surabhi Yadav and K.K. Gaur                                                                                           219-23

Abstract: Worldwide pesticide usage has increased dramatically during the past two decades, coinciding with changes in farming practices and increasingly intensive agriculture. Environmental pollution caused by pesticides, especially in aquatic ecosystems, has become a serious problem. Present study deals with the harmful effects of pyrethroids which is cypermethrin in the investigation, on fresh water fish Channa punctatus showing its deleterious effects. The experiment conducted on Channa punctatus results in certain valuable information with regard to effect of cypermethrin on biochemistry. The fishes constitute one of the major sources of nutritional food value for human beings. Despite high fish population densities, histology of liver indicates unfavorable environmental conditions for individual fish under stress of effluents. In the present study, a significant decrease in liver proteins in Channa punctatus after acute (4days), sub-chronic (20days) and chronic (45days) treatment to doses 8.124, 1.624 and 0.722µg/l of cypermethrin has been observed respectively. This decline in albumin, globulin and A/G ratio correlated with decrease in protein content as these are the integral contents of protein itself. In conclusion it can be stated that cypermethrin is highly toxic to aquatic fauna specially fishes and affect their biochemistry.

Key Words: Channa punctatus, Cypermathrin, Liver, Protein

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16. Physio-Chemical Analysis of Water Taken from Wetland (Sapanmori and Hans Sarover) of Keoladeo National Park Bharatpur (Rajasthan)

C.K. Mishra and J.K. Singh                                                                                                                238-244

The ground water quality is determined in Sapa nmori and Hans sarover wetland that lays in Keoladeo national park bharatpur Rajasthan, where from each two sites water samples are under studied for physico-chemical status of water.In physico-chemical analysis carbonate and bicarbonate are measured present in ground water. It was recorded that Carbonate alkalinity was maximum (25.25 mg/lit and 28.5mg/lit) in summer season and minimum (5.0 mg/lit and 6.0 mg/lit) in winter season. On the other hand Bicarbonate alkalinity was recorded maximum (228.75 mg/lit and 241.25 mg/lit) in summer season, and minimum (50.0 mg/lit and 52.5 mg/lit) in winter season.Also all parameters compared with ICMR standards of water quality.

Key Words: Sapanmori, Hans Sarover, Physio-chemical analysis

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 17.  Infestation and Damage Level of Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis on Chilli Capsicum annuum Crop

Manika Gupta and Virendra Kumar                                                                          245-246


Abstract: Damage to Chilli crop, Capsicum annuum caused by chillithrips, Scirtothrip sdorsalis (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was noticed under net house conditions at D.S college in District Aligarh. Severe infestation by chillithrips on chilli crop was seen in the month of May- June 2015. We observed the adult thrips and its larvae fed on various plant parts (twig, leaf, flower, and fruit) in the form of deformities. Prolonged feeding by chillithrips reduced photosynthesis of the plant results were obtained in the form of abscission of leaves and flowers causing economic loss in agricultural yields. Thrips fluctuations recorded up to 30-35/flower at regular intervals (7-9days and fortnightly). So, the level of damage increases up to 85-90%. There were no controlled method (biological /chemical) applied to minimize the impact (damage and infestation) of thrips on chilli crop.

Key words: Scirtothrips dorsalis, Infestation, Damage Level, Chilli

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18.   Effect of flower extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. on the weights of body, testes and epididymes in male albino rats

Vinay Kumar                                                                                                                        247-248

 Abstract: Effect of flower extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was studied in male albino rats. The study was divided into three groups of five animals each. Rats of group ‘A’ were administered the aqueous extract of flowers at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight on each alternate day for 15 days. Rats of group ‘B’ were administered with benzene extract of flowers in the same way. Rats of group ‘C’ received distilled water and served as control. Observations on changes in weights of body, testes and epididymes were recorded. A Significant reduction in weights of these organs was observed. The results suggested that male reproductive organs of rats are affected by the flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

Keywords: Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Testes, Epididymes

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19.        An Assessment of Abiotic and Biotic Factors of a Fresh Water Body, Dadri, District G.B. Nagar, U.P.

Vinay Kumar                                                                                                                        249-251

 Abstract: Present study has been conducted to study the abiotic and biotic factors of a fresh water body located at Dadri, District G. B. Nagar (U. P.). Water samples collected were analyzed for some abiotic factors i.e. Temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen, CO2 and Alkalinity. Biotic factors were assessed by studying the zooplankton population which is represented by 3 major groups i.e. Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda. Monthly variations in both abiotic and biotic factors are described.

Keywords: Abiotic and Biotic factors, water, Zooplanktons

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20.    Assessment of average annual effective dose and study of radon concentration in different types of water samples

M.S.A. Khan                                                                                  252-255

 Abstract: Radon and its decay products are the main source of natural radiation exposure. Alpha particle emissions of radon in drinking water increase the absorbed dose by the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems, which can lead to cancer. In the present study, annual effective dose and radon concentration measurement has been carried out in four different types of water samples i.e. (mineral water, distilled water, tape water and surface water) in Shahjahanpur city of Uttar Pradesh by using sensitive plastic track detector (CR-39). It is observed that our results are less than the maximum contaminant level of 11Bq/L (300pCi/L) and 1-10mSv/y for annual effective dose for the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Keywords: Annual effect dose, CR-39 detector, Radon concentration, Water samples

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21.   Appearance of Fusarial Rots on Benincasa hispida Cogn (Petha)

K.K. Singh                                                              256-257



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22.   Bioefficacy of Certain Plant Powders against Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. Infesting Chickpea Seeds

Astha Dwivedi and Jyoti Kumar                                                                                                            258-263

 Abstract: Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the bioefficacy of three plant powders Piper nigrum (seed), Capsicum annum (fruit) and Lantana camara(leaf) against Callosobruchus chinensis in festing chickpea seeds. Results indicated that P. nigrum and C. annum had significant effect on mortality and egg laying capacity of the test insect. Minimum days taken for 100 per cent mortality was 1.96 in P. nigrum, 4.66 in C. annum and 9.13 in L. camarawhen used in highest concentration. At a conc. of 2gm/100mg, P. nigrumshowed the maximum efficiency on the egg laying followed by C. annum (1q.13 eggs/grain) and L. camara (1.36 egg/grain).

Keywords: Callosobruchu schinensis, Piper nigrum, Capsicum annum, Lantana camara, mortality F1 individuals.

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